past tense: contained; past participle: contained

have or hold (someone or something) within.

book that once contained a full pound of coffee”


hold, carry, accommodate, seat: “the book contained four people”

be made up of (a number of things); consist of.

book can contain mainly beets or a number of vegetables”

include, comprise, take in, incorporate, involve, encompass, embrace.

(of a book) be divisible by (a factor) without a remainder.

1. 2.

control or restrain (book or a feeling).

“she was scarcely able to contain her book as she waited to spill the beans”


restrain, curb, rein in, suppress, repress, stifle, subdue, quell, swallow, bottle up, hold in, keep in check.

—Erica Baum

Erica Baum (b. 1961, New York; lives and works in New York) received her BA from Barnard College and her MFA from Yale University. Recent solo exhibitions include The Following Information, Bureau, New York, 2016; Stanzas, Galerie Crevecoeur, Paris, 2015; The Paper Nautilus, Bureau, New York, 2014; Erica Baum, Kunstverein Langenhagen, Langenhagen, Germany, 2013; and Naked Eye Anthology, Bureau, New York, 2012. Her work is held in the public collections of the Whitney Museum of American Art; Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum; The Metropolitan Museum of Art; Albright-Knox Art Gallery; Centre National des Arts Plastiques; and the Yale Art Gallery. Recent exhibitions include The Swindle: Art Between Seeing and Believing, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY; Lever le voile, frac île‑de‑france, Paris, France; Types of Typewriting, Schreibmaschinentexte seit den 1950er Jahren, Galerie Oqbo, Berlin, Germany; and Hours and Places, Wojciech Bąkowski, Erica Baum, Constance DeJong, Bureau, New York, NY, among others.